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Posted by on Nov 7, 2012 in Just Intonation, The Lattice | 0 comments

The Tonic

The heart of the lattice is the note called 1. This note is the tonic.

Almost all the music you hear — pop, rock, classical — has one note that is at the center, a master note against which all other notes are measured. That note is the tonic. It’s the Do of Do Re Mi. When you call a scale “G Major,” or say that a song is in the key of G, the G is the tonic.

A single note means little by itself. But when it’s considered in relation to the tonic, it acquires meaning. The examples in yesterday’s post show how a note changes character when played against different tonics.

The tonic establishes the framework for the rest of the notes in a piece. It’s the anvil on which the music is forged.

The tonic can be any note. When you tune your guitar by the campfire, without a tuner, just tuning it to itself, you’ve chosen a reference frame that will make perfect sense, regardless of whether it’s the same frame as a piano or orchestra back home. You can happily play great music in the key of G-and-a-half, if you’re playing solo.

Once you’ve established the tonic, the rest of the notes are tuned, and named, relative to that note. The tonic is the center, the Big Bang of that particular musical universe. The rest of the structure comes from the interplay between the tonic and small, whole numbers — mainly 2, 3, 5 and 7.

The tonic is Home. The lattice shows how music is a journey, away from home and back again, through different lands, each with its own scenery and feeling.

Next: Harmonic Experience

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Posted by on Nov 6, 2012 in Just Intonation, The Notes | 0 comments

Notes and Intervals

A note, in music, is a sound with a particular pitch. Pitch is frequency, measured in cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz). The faster the vibration, the higher the pitch.

A vibration, at, say, 220 Hz, all by itself is a note by that general definition. But the note doesn’t acquire its distinct personality until it’s considered in relation to some other note. That relationship is called an interval.

Here is that 220 Hz note, played on a cello, all by itself: 220 Hz

Here it is in relation to a note an octave below, vibrating half as fast, at 110 Hz: 220 and 110

It still sounds like the same note. But now play it with a note vibrating at 1/3 of its frequency, or 73.33 Hz. The 220 Hz note acquires a very different character: 220 and 73

And now with a note at 1/5 its frequency, 44 Hz: 220 and 44

Even though the 220 Hz note always has the same pitch, in a different context it has a different personality and function.

The lattice of the Flying Dream video does not show absolute pitch. Each intersection, or node, represents a note, named according to its relationship to one special note: the Tonic.

Next: The Tonic

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